Mendel and Heredity Review - Answers

 

Choose the best answer:

 

  1. What is the relationship between genes and chromosomes? A  gene is a segment of DNA; a chromosome is two copies (chromatids) of coiled DNA and associated proteins.

 

  1. What are gametes?  An organism's reproductive cells or a  generic term for sperm and eggs.

 

  1. A chromatid is : One of two exact copies of DNA and its associated proteins that make up a chromosome.

 

  1. Prokaryotes (bacteria) reproduce by a process called:  Asexual reproduction and binary fission

 

  1. The passing of traits from one generation to the next is called  Heredity

 

  1. The study of the patterns of heredity is called Genetics

 

  1. An Austrian monk and monastery high school teacher that was the first to develop rules to accurately predict patterns of heredity  -  Mendel

 

  1. A british farmer that cross-pollinated a variety of garden peas with purple flowers and a variety of pea flowers with white flowers -  T.A. Knight

 

  1. A mating between two organisms with two pairs of contrasting traits is called a monohybrid cross.

 

  1. A mating between two organisms with two pairs of contrasting traits is called a Di-hybrid cross

 

  1. True breeding results in the same phenotypes each time.

 

  1.  
  2.  
  3. Parental generation, first filial generation, and offspring of the first filial generation:      P  F1 F2, or Grandparents, Parents, Children

 

  1. Ratio
  2. 1:3 or 3:1
  3. 5:10:5
  4. 10:1
  5. Breeding

 

  1.  
    1. For each inherited trait, an individual has two copies of a gene, one from each parent.
    2. There are alternative versions of genes, called alleles.
    3. When two different alleles occur together in offspring, one may be completely expressed and the other may have no observable effect on the offspring’s appearance.
    4. When gametes are formed (during Meiosis), the alleles for each gene separate from each other, so gametes carry only one copy.  During fertilization, each gamete contributes one allele.

 

  1. Different versions of a gene are called     Alleles

 

  1. When alleles for two forms of a trait are present in an individuals genotype, the one that is expressed in the phenotype is called    Dominant

 

  1. When alleles for two forms of a trait are present in an individuals genotype, the one that is not expressed in the phenotype is called     Recessive

 

  1. An individual with two different alleles of a particular gene is called    Homozygous

 

  1. An individual with two different alleles of a particular gene is called   Heterozygous

 

  1. The set of two alleles that an individual has is called the individual’s     Genotype

 

  1. The physical appearance of a particular trait is called its        Phenotype

 

  1. The law of inheritance that states that alleles for different genes separate independently from one another during gamete formation is called     Law of Independent Assortment

 

  1. A diagram that predicts the expected outcome of a genetic cross by considering all possible combinations of alleles from gametes in the cross is called a      Punnett square

 

  1. A cross between an individual with an unknown genotype and a homozygous recessive is called a Test cross

 

  1. A family history that shows how a particular trait is carried over several generations     Pedigree

 

  1. A trait whose allele is located on the X-chromosome.           Sex-linked trait

 

  1. Examples of incomplete dominance:    wavy hair, pink-flowered snapdragons, skin color in humans, rabbit fur color, butterfly wing colors

 

  1. Codominance differs from incomplete dominance because:   Both traits are displayed in codominance AND an intermediate trait is displayed in incomplete dominance

 

  1. In humans, blood types refer to two carbohydrates on the surface of red blood cells, known as  the A antigen and B antigen

 

  1. The alleles for blood types are    IA, IB, and i

 

  1. Of blood type alleles IA, IB, and i, which is recessive?    Only I

 

  1. Which of the blood type alleles IA, IB, and i are codominant?      IA and IB

 

  1. What are the four possible blood types resulting from the alleles IA, IB, and i?       A, B, AB and O

 

  1. What combination of blood type alleles results in Blood type O?      i i

 

  1. Which of the following are examples of traits influenced by the environment:
    1. Soil pH on Hydrangea flower color, temperature on arctic fox fur color, temperature on Siamese cat fur color, sun exposure and nutrition on human skin color and height

 

  1. Name the fatal genetic disorder in which chloride ions fail to pass through the cell membrane.  Cystic Fibrosis

 

  1. Name the genetic disorder in which a defective form of protein hemoglobin that causes red blood cells to change shape.      Sickle-cell anemia

 

  1. Name the genetic disorder involving gradual deterioration of brain tissues in middle age.     Huntingdon's disease

 

  1. Name the genetic disorder in which a defective brain enzyme causes deterioration of the central nervous system, usually fatal in early childhood.      Tay-Sachs disease

 

  1. Name the sex-linked genetic disorder that impairs the blood’s ability to clot.    Hemophilia a